White Papers
Two-Sided Platforms and Analysis of Single-Firm Conduct
September 19, 2017

Recent work in economics has shown that many significant industries are based on “two-sided platforms” that enable distinct groups of customers to interact with each other and obtain the benefits of externalities between them. These include old-economy industries such as advertising-supported media and new-economy industries such... more »


GREEN PAPER: Digital Platforms
September 19, 2017

The present Green Paper forms part of the Digital Strategy 2025, the broad outlines, measures and goals of which were published by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy at the beginning of March this year. It marks the prelude to a broad... more »


Two-Sided Markets: An Overview
September 19, 2017

The paper offers an introduction and a road map to the burgeoning literature on two-sided markets. In many industries, platforms court two (or more) sides that use the platform to interact with each other. The platforms’ usage or variable charges impact the two sides’ willingness... more »


Platform Competition in Two-Sided Markets
September 19, 2017

Many if not most markets with network externalities are two-sided. To succeed, platforms in industries such as software, portals and media, payment systems and the Internet, must “get both sides of the market on board.” Accordingly, platforms devote much attention to their business model, that... more »


Realizing the Potential of Blockchain: A Multistakeholder Approach to the Stewardship of Blockchain and Cryptocurrencies
September 19, 2017

Like the first generation of the internet, this second generation promises to disrupt business models and transform industries. Blockchain (also called distributed ledger), the technology enabling cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and Ethereum, is pulling us into a new era of openness, decentralization and global inclusion. It... more »


Can Online Markets Make Trade More Inclusive?
September 18, 2017

Technology made available by online markets has significantly reduced the cost of entry into international markets for small and medium sized firms, who can now reach far away consumers and create global reputation as a seller at very low costs. Empirical evidence using data from... more »


The Development Dimension of E-Commerce in Asia: Opportunities and Challenges
September 17, 2017

E-commerce is the sale and purchase of goods and services through electronic networks and the internet, encompassing a broad range of commercial activity. While widespread adoption of e-commerce in advanced economies is evident, physical and institutional barriers to its application in developing countries must first... more »